Tagged: organizations

History of Public Health Service Policy

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Regulations have been promulgated by the PHS
since 1935, originally through one of its constituents, the
National Institutes of Health (Whitney). NIH guidelines
have provided direction and recommendations for caring for
and using laboratory animals at NIH. Subsequently,
a committee

of laboratory scientists assembled by the
Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources of the National
Research Council (NRC) wrote the
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC guide). First published in 1963 and updated many times since, this work has
become the standard guide in the field. The first policy
based upon the 1963 NRC guide came from NIH in 1971. The PHS

published its first policy on animal care in
1973, with revisions in 1973, 1979, 1986, 1996, and 2002.
Each successive revision increased the specificity
and level of responsibility of animal-care committees in the
supervision of animal use.

At the outset of NIH policymaking in animal
care and use in 1971, all institutions and organizations
using warmblooded animals for the purpose of research or other
projects

supported by NIH were required to give
assurances that facilities for animals met “acceptable
standards for the care, use, and treatment of such animals.” This
assurance could be

met either by gaining accreditation through a
professional laboratory-accrediting body (such as the
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory
Animal Care International [AAALAC]) or by establishing a
committee to evaluate the care and housing of animals used
for NIHsponsored

activities. Institutions were also obligated to follow pertinent sections of the animal welfare
regulations.

In 1973, the NIH policy was replaced by the
first of the PHS policies. Like the NIH policy preceding it, the
first PHS policy required institutions either to be fully
accredited or to have a standing institutional committee with a
minimum of three members, including a veterinarian for
those institutions using a “significant” number of animals. These
committees were required to conduct periodic facility
inspections, with the review of applications and proposals
involving

the use of animals considered optional. ANIMAL RESEARCH ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOETHICS 3rd Edition 179

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